Give and Receive Feedback with Radical Candor

The fireball: my first feedback story

It was one of my first jobs, the debut of my career. I was working for Procter & Gamble in Bucharest. The Romanian branch had just opened a procurement centre (intending to transfer all procurement activities from Brussels and Geneva), and I was employee number four of the new centre. I was also a small tornado, wanting to do things fast and change everything (not really thinking of the consequences of broken things).

I remember my first feedback session like it happened yesterday. My boss, a very experienced manager with years of leadership in several corporations under his belt, looked at me and said:

Andreea, you are like a ball of fire. You either push everything forward, like an engine of a great ship, or you just burn everything in your way. What can you do to stop burning and start building?“.

I was more than surprised. In my mind, I got everything done ahead of everyone, got the best numbers, and solved everyone’s problems (back then, we used SAP, which I mastered quite fast). But that statement made me stop and reflect. I reflect on it to this day, observing patterns of “fireball” in my behaviour every now and then (I’m much quicker to correct them, though).

That was great feedback! It did its job then and does its job fourteen years after. And thanks to that feedback, I consider my former manager one of the best leaders I have ever worked with.

Feedback and leadership

Feedback is an incredible leadership tool if used wisely. But what is “wise feedback“? I intend to clarify this question in this post. My inspiration comes from two badass bosses: Kim Scott‘s Radical Candor – Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity and Julie Zhuo‘s The Making of a Manager – What to Do When Everyone Looks at You.

Wise feedback… “inspired you to change your behaviour, which resulted in your life getting better” (Julie Zhuo). Good feedback pushes for transformation and growth, finding its way to your core.

Feedback can be positive and negative, and can be praise and criticism. There is one essential condition for you to make it work, make it transformational and meaningful: give feedback from a place of genuinely caring for the person and wanting them to grow.

The Radical Candour Feedback Framework

Genuinely caring about others is at the heart of the Radical Candour feedback method. Radical Candor is built on two dimensions: care personally and challenge directly.

The big tech companies brought humanity back into management. Gone is the concept that business is business, and our personal lives are on a different dimension, allowing us to separate the two perfectly. Having worked with Google, Apple, and Twitter, Kim Scott says that “only when you care about the whole person with your whole self can you build a relationship“. And leadership is building relationships.

Being genuine, caring about others, and considering your relationship with your employees – as a manager – as deeply personal are all attributes of caring personally.

Challenging others and encouraging them to challenge you helps build trusting relationships because it shows 1) you care enough to point out both the things that aren’t going well and those that are and 2) you are willing to admit when you’re wrong“.

Only when you care personally and challenge directly can you move towards giving transformative feedback and really make the best of this incredible tool.

Considering the two dimensions, Kim Scott came up with four types of feedback; I will detail each below. Remember that each quadrant refers to guidance, not personality traits and shouldn’t be used to label people, as everyone spends some time in each quadrant (as part of their growth).

  1. Radical Candor (care personally and challenge directly)
  2. Obnoxious Aggression (challenge directly without caring)
  3. Manipulative Insincerity (don’t care, don’t challenge)
  4. Ruinous Empathy (care, but don’t challenge)

Context used for examples: Jimmy deployed a buggy feature to production. It’s not the first time that has happened. You are Jimmy’s manager.

Radical Candor

Example: a private conversation with Jimmy: “Jimmy, your last deployment caused a bunch of bugs that reached the customers. Because of that, our Customer Support team has been working overtime. It’s not the first time this happened. Would you like to pair programs to fix the bug together?

When giving radically candid feedback, you have only one intention: to help the person in front of you improve. So before everything, check your motives. You can’t hide it if you want to vent or are angry.

Both praise and criticism have to be specific, emphasising praise (criticism tends to be quite to the point). “You’re amazing!“, “What a great presentation” and “I loved your last design” is nice to hear but too vague to help the person grow. Make it specific, give context, and do it in public or private (consider the culture of the individual and team when you make this decision, as in some cultures, it’s embarrassing to be praised in public).

For criticism to do its job and push for improvement, it has to be done immediately after the situation that suggested it; it has to be private and ideally face-to-face (or video conference, not telephone and especially not in writing!).

Obnoxious Aggression

Example: when you see the bugs on production, you yell out loud in the office: “Who the hell delivered this? Jimmy? Just what I thought! Jimmy, how many times do I have to tell you to test your code?“.

Obnoxiously aggressive feedback is criticism without caring about the individual. It tends to be debilitating towards downward Aggression: belittling or public embarrassment is unacceptable in any working environment. Unfortunately, a lot of us saw and knew this boss well.

I remember when I quit my first job in a corporation. My boss was a political individual who didn’t spend one moment to mentor or train us a thing (old-style, I-own-the-place-and-you type). When I resigned (after I got the job at P&G), she looked straight into my eyes and said: “You resigned, now I can tell you: you suck! You’re really not good for this job. I am happy you left!”. I’ve been working there for two years, and never once had she said a thing about my performance.

These managers criticise to humiliate and assert their power, not to elevate their peers.

Manipulative Insincerity

Example: you whisper to your team: “Hah, Jimmy deployed buggy code again! This guy has no clue about quality and testing, hahaha.” then you return to your work.

I personally consider this quadrant the worst. There is absolutely no caring and no challenge. These individuals focus only on their own person and what they can gain from the situations that arise. So they will give praise or criticism, but only if there’s something in it for them. There can also be praise, but it represents false admiration or apology.

Ruinous Empathy

Example: you see the bugs, and you’re aware that’s a problem for the whole team. But you don’t say anything to Jimmy, as you don’t want to upset him. However, because this situation repeats and you postpone giving feedback, you end up firing Jimmy, which is a total surprise (as he was never told he did something wrong).

The bad part about this ineffective (lack of) feedback is that it comes from a good place: you care about the person and don’t want to hurt them. But you don’t care enough to push for their growth and transformation. So being nice is prioritised at the expense of the person’s development.

The environment created under the Ruinous Empathy quadrant is unsupportive; people lack trust in their manager or their abilities and never know where they stand. As a result, some get fired or are put on performance review without apparent explanation. Caring is equivalent to neglect in this situation.

Interestingly, most people prefer an obnoxiously aggressive boss, if radical candour is impossible, to any other form of feedback. The good thing about this type of character is that at least you know what to expect.

Find below another example from Radical Candor on how you tell someone their fly is down:

From Kim Scott – Radical Candor. Be a Kick-Ass Boss Without Losing Your Humanity.

How to give feedback for change

Even if you’re using Radical Candor and doing your best to care personally and challenge yourself directly, the feedback might not create change.

Julie Zhuo suggests a few ways to push for your team’s transformation:

1. Set clear expectations at the beginning: expectations make giving feedback easier and help tremendously make it effective. You can consider this the first step in providing feedback.

“Here’s what success looks like for the next meeting you run: the different options are framed clearly, everyone feels like their point of view is well represented, and a decision is made”.

Excerpt From: Julie Zhuo. “What to Do When Everyone Looks to You

2. Give task-specific feedback as frequently as possible: task-specific feedback should be given continuously, close to the moment the task came to your attention (right after would be ideal). This is the most accessible feedback form and the easiest to follow through.

“That research report you shared yesterday was excellent. The way you succinctly summarized the most important findings at the top made it easy to process. The particular insight about X was really useful.”

Excerpt From: Julie Zhuo. “What to Do When Everyone Looks to You

3. Share behavioural feedback thoughtfully and regularly: most feedback will focus on specific behaviours related to a situation or context. But, as a caring manager, you may observe behavioural patterns (some people are afraid to take risks, some avoid presenting their work, etc.). These should be brought to the surface and carefully discussed with your colleague. You will directly refer to how you perceive them, which can be hurtful (nonviolent communication comes in handy here).

“When people ask you questions about your work, your tone is often defensive. For example, when Sally left a comment on your code, you replied with “just trust me.” This disregarded the substance of her feedback and made you appear less trustworthy.”

Excerpt From: Julie Zhuo. “What to Do When Everyone Looks to You

4. Collect 360-degree feedback for maximum objectivity: to increase feedback objectivity (and to confirm your assumptions as managers), it’s best to ask for regular 360 feedback (every quarter would be a good cadence). You can also guide people who want to give you feedback about one colleague towards that respective colleague for a higher impact (to also eliminate she-said-he-said).

“Your peers give you a lot of props for how you managed the budget crisis. This was important and difficult work, and your calm demeanor, excellent listening skills, and rational arguments helped the team get to a good outcome.”

Excerpt From: Julie Zhuo. “What to Do When Everyone Looks to You

Conclusions

Feedback is powerful and can make the difference between great and mediocre leadership. So spend time perfecting this tool and practice, practice, practice. There is a lot of learning and growth for you in the process (remember that you will be asking for feedback while you build on the habit of giving it).

There are some more suggestions on how to give the best and most effective feedback from the two outstanding leaders that inspired this post:

  • Be humble: neither you nor your employee possesses the whole truth; be open to being challenged.
  • Be helpful: make it clear you want to be beneficial; if you’re not certain, write down objectives before giving feedback to ensure all you want is to help.
  • Ask yourself – and your team – if you are giving enough feedback. Also, ensure your feedback isn’t only task-related, as growth doesn’t refer only to technical skills.
  • Make sure your feedback is heard. What you say and what is understood can be two different things. Ask clarifying questions, summarise the discussion and way forward to make sure you end the conversation with the same understanding.
  • Make sure your feedback leads to positive action (it is specific, clarifies what success looks and feels like, and has clear next steps).

Resources

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