Master Retrospectives and You Master Team Learning

I believe all Agile principles are equal in importance, and they work together holistically: focus on customers, iterative development, self-organised teams, technical excellence, and continuous improvement. But this last principle is “more equal than the others“:

Continuous improvement is the heart of Agile. Without reflection, there is no learning, without learning, there is no continuous improvement, and no agile transformation can happen if teams don’t improve their work and processes.

Unfortunately, the retrospective is also the most underestimated event and the one to be dropped by the teams that feel “they spend too much time in meetings“.

One of my teams decided they don’t need retrospectives, as they communicate plenty throughout the day and improve things. I stepped aside and allowed the team to experiment. A few weeks after, three different members of the team, plus their manager (who was the one to decide the retrospectives take up too much of their time), asked me to run regular retrospectives, as the team was dealing with issues on all fronts (communication, collaboration, lack of clarity about what is valuable, no understanding of backlog prioritisation, to name a few).

There is no doubt that retrospectives are the key to a successful agile transformation, but they need to be used effectively and properly facilitated.

In this post, I will look into why we need retrospectives (in agile environments and any other organization and framework), what makes a retrospective successful and a few examples of unsuccessful retrospectives, or “retrospective smells“.

Why retrospectives

A 2014 Harvard Business School study confirmed that we do not learn from experience, we learn from reflecting on experience. The finding occurred when expertise and practical application of skills were more valued than any other type of learning (on an individual and organisational level).

We argue that once an individual has accumulated experience with a task, the benefit of accumulating additional experience is inferior to the benefit of deliberately articulating and codifying the previously accumulated experience.”

From: Learning by Thinking: How Reflection Improves Performance, by Giada Di Stefano, Francesca Gino, Gary Pisano and Bradley Staats, HBS, 2014

The study confirms assumptions made by companies like Toyota that made continuous improvement (reflect and improve) part of their company philosophy. At the same time, most agile frameworks have some form of constant improvement events (e.g. Retrospectives in Scrum, kaizen events in Lean).

Without retrospectives you will find that the team keeps making the same mistakes over and over again”.

Henrick Kniberg, Scrum and XP from the Trenches, InfoQ, Toronto, 2007

Norm Kerth, also known as the father of retrospectives, created The Law of Wisdom Acquisition: “It is much easier to identify another’s foolishness than to recognize one’s own.” he mentioned in his book Project Retrospectives: A Handbook for Team Reviews. Since it’s not natural to stop working and reflect on how you can improve, this process needs to be formalised and transformed into a ritual.

Here’s where retrospectives come in.

Retrospective rituals are more than just a review of the past. They also provide a chance to look forward, to plot the next project, and to plan explicitly what will be approached differently next time.

Kerth, Norman. Project Retrospectives: A Handbook for Team Reviews

There is one primordial condition for a successful retrospective: it has to be safe. Safe implies that the participants can speak openly and honestly about work they (or others) did, proactively looking for ways to do it better. That also translates into consciously looking for issues or problems to solve, which is not an easy process (I still cringe when I read a past blog post and see errors or mistakes, no matter if I wrote them yesterday or last year).

The responsibility for safety belongs to everyone in the room, but the facilitator has to initiate, monitor, and control safety. She needs to create a safe space where people trust that speaking up will not bring them retribution. Norm Kerth came up with Kerth’s Prime Directive for retrospectives:

Kerth’s Prime Directive

Regardless of what we discover, we must understand and truly believe that everyone did the best job her or she could, given what was known at the time, his or her skills and abilities, the resources available, and the situation at hand.

Kerth, Norman. Project Retrospectives: A Handbook for Team Reviews

The Prime Directive is a great way to start the retrospective and discuss how the retrospective should proceed.

I would add another rule: “what is discussed in the retrospective stays in the retrospective” to help create a space of safety and honesty. The experiments (actions) the teams decide to work on will probably be shared with others (as they might be added to the backlog), but otherwise, the discussion is meant for the team and team only.

The anatomy of a retrospective

If Norm Kerth is the father of retrospectives, Esther Derby and Diana Larsen are the mothers. Their book, Agile Retrospectives. Making Good Teams Great is considered a manual for retrospectives, teaching how to run a successful retrospective and giving plenty of ideas for retrospective activities.

Derby and Larsen present the structure of a regular retrospective (1 hour, most successful retrospectives I run are of around 1.5 hours). Here’s how a 1.5 hours retrospective should be structured to achieve its goal of continuous improvement:

1. Set the stage

This is probably the most overlooked stage of the retrospective, as it’s considered too “fluffy” in a software development environment. Instead, the goal is to set the stage for the conversation and focus everyone in the room on the work.

  • As a facilitator, thank everyone for being there, state the purpose of the session, and remind everyone how long the meeting will last.
  • Have every single person speak. If a person says something (anything) in the first 5 minutes of the retrospective, they are more likely to speak up during the session.
  • Next outline the approach for the session; I ask the team how they would like to proceed with the sessions, giving them some options or activities. Finally, when I am aware of existing issues within the team, I propose a specific activity to address those.
  • If the team has team rules, values or working agreements, bring them up (e.g. don’t speak over each other, no phones or laptops, no blame session, etc.).
  • If there are pending improvement actions from previous retrospectives, review those and their status (ideally, they were completed).
  • Duration: 5% (5 min).

2. Gather data

The second part of the retrospective is to ensure everyone has a shared understanding of how the sprint went.

I ran a retrospective where the entire team discussed how great the sprint went, how much work they had done, and how excited they were for what came next. I noticed that one of our colleagues was quiet and didn’t join the conversation, so I asked: “How were things for you this iteration, Jenny?”. She heaved a sigh and said: “This was probably the worst sprint I had since I joined this company”. This silenced the room, and everyone turned to listen. Jenny had just joined the team, it was her first sprint, and wasn’t up to speed with the communication style, fast feedback loops, the stack, and everything else that the team had been building in over a year of working together. As an outsider, everything was very fast, and the team didn’t notice her struggling in their haste to deliver the sprint goal.

This is the session when you ensure everyone has the same information on the sprint. No matter how tight teams are, each person has their own approach and struggles to deal with, and bringing them out is essential.

Data can be a conversation, a timeline of the sprint, task boards, charts, etc. Don’t look only at hard facts, feelings and emotions are indications of systemic issues, so consider them as well (e.g. a timeline that includes feeling charts, smiley faces, coloured post-its that indicate feelings, etc.).

Duration: 30-50% (20-40 min).

3. Generate insights

The next step in a retrospective is to ask “Why?” and discuss ways about what to do differently. Considering the data (strengths and issues), the team generates insights to improve their work.

The risk here is that the team focuses too low a level on symptoms rather than the cause of issues. As a facilitator, you should be helping them determine patterns, conditions, and interactions that contributed to their success or were in the way of their success.

Generating insights allows the team to take a step back, see the big picture, see the systemic issues and look for the root causes.

Duration: 20-30% (15-20 min).

4. Decide actions

The team now has a list of improvements and experiment ideas that could improve their work. We must take these items, prioritise them and decide on the top actions to proceed with during the following sprint(s).

Pick a maximum of 1-2 experiments or initiatives to work on in the following iteration. Too many things to do means nothing is done. Ensure these actions are being done and not just thrown on a board and forgotten about.

A suggestion is to have an improvement backlog where you track your experiments and their completion status. I prefer to add them to the backlog so that during the planning session, time is set aside for improvements.

The final step during this session is to have the team commit to the experiments proposed individually. Otherwise, everyone will assume that the other person will work on them, and nobody does.

Duration: 15-20% (10-15 min).

5. Close the retrospective

At the end of the retro, make a summary of what was discussed and the actions to be taken, decide how to document them (add them to the backlog, take photos of cards and boards from the session and add them to the team space, etc.) and how the team will follow up on them.

Remember the rule: “what is discussed in the retrospective stays in the retrospective“. The learning belongs to the team, not the coach, the facilitator, the team manager, etc.

As a closing for the session, you can ask everyone to express gratitude or appreciation to close on a high positive note. You can also take a few minutes to do a retrospective of the retrospective and get feedback on how to run more effective retrospectives.

Duration: 10% (10 min).

When you plan the timing for your activities, consider shuffle time (moving between activities, buffers, potential breaks, etc.) of about 10-15% of the entire time for the session.

There are plenty of ideas for activities set for each stage of the retrospective, some in Esther Derby and Diana Larson’s book, and plenty of websites (my favourite is TastyCupcakes). In the following post, I will present my favourite activities for each retrospective stage.

Retrospectives gone wrong

There are plenty of ways for the retrospectives to go wrong; you can identify them based on how the team runs the sessions (following the structure above) and the output of the sessions. Liz Sedley and Rachel Davies call them “retrospective smells” in Agile Coaching:

  • Ideas fest: the team comes up with ideas without looking into insights from the last iteration. Actions that aren’t connected to real team problems won’t push for the team’s improvement.
  • History lesson: the team dives deep into issues and strengths, but no action is taken to proceed with real improvement. Thus change is not planned for the next iteration, and the team doesn’t move forward (even though they understand each other better from their conversations).
  • Change the world: the team enthusiastically commits to many actions they don’t have the time to complete. Each retrospective adds more actions to the list, but no real improvement is made.
  • Wishful thinking: the team decides on vague improvements that are not really actions and don’t guide the team members on what exactly to do (e.g. “refactor more”, “improve communication”, etc.)
  • No time to improve: the team doesn’t really run retrospectives; they have short discussions at the end of the iteration about how to improve and call them retrospectives at the end of the iteration. Individual improvement ideas are lost in translation, as there is no space for them to get the team’s attention and commitment.
  • Hot air: these retrospectives are complaint sessions and can become downright hostile for everyone present; the facilitator has helped dissipate the complaint energy and help the group learn from the complaints without playing blame games. The discussion should be guided towards what the team can do to generate improvement actions.


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